5 minutes for you to understand the electric car motor Hall knowledge

Two-wheeled electric vehicles have become the most economical and convenient means of transportation for people to travel short distances, and its principle is that by turning the speed control handle, the electrical energy in the battery is converted into mechanical energy through the controller to make rotary motion, providing power for the vehicle. Therefore, the motor is one of the four major components of the electric car, in addition to mechanical failure, the motor Hall will also fail.

Hall component types and judgment tips

The Hall element has a magnetically sensitive device inside, which changes when it is subjected to a strong or weak magnetic field, and then finally reacts it out electrically through the pins.

Hall elements are mostly available in 2-, 3- and 4-pin, switching, latching, and linear types. Hall elements used in electric vehicles are generally 3-pin switching and linear types. The so-called switching Hall components is its output with the presence or absence of a magnetic field, that is, either the output of a high potential, or output of low potential, like a switch; linear Hall components output is with the change in the magnetic field strength and change, the magnetic field strength of the different at the same time it can be output between 0 ~ 5V of any voltage value, and is a linear change.

Different types of Hall elements are not interchangeable, the same type of Hall elements of different models can be interchanged, but the replacement should pay attention to the pin connection. Electric car on the Hall element of two pins connected to the 5V power supply, the other is the signal output pin. The electric car motor on the Hall element is a switching type, emergency repair can also be used to lock the type and memory type of the Hall element substitute.

What are the abnormalities of a damaged Hall element?

If the Hall element fails, the direct result of the problem is that the motor does not rotate and is stuck motionless. The control board needs to collect the motor rotor phase information through the hall element, if the hall element is damaged, the control board will think that the motor rotor is not rotating and keep the original drive current, so the current is not reversed and the motor will not rotate. However, if the motor remains in a rotating position, the motor will not start but will continue to heat up, which will cause damage to the motor. However, if the motor is artificially rotated, it can be restarted from the stuck position.

Measurement methods

Universal Meter Measurement of Hall

  1. With the multimeter resistance gear to measure the motor winding, if the motor is three-phase, the winding is balanced, if the motor is single-phase, you need to measure the resistance of the start and run winding. Single-direction operation of the start winding than the running winding resistance, there are positive and negative directions of operation of the start and run winding resistance is the same, resistance size can be referred to the same type of motor.
  2. With a multimeter 2M ohm gear (or higher grade) to measure the insulation resistance of the windings and motor metal casing, the final measurement should be greater than 0.5M ohm, otherwise the windings are either damp or damaged. It is best to use a 500V megohm shaking table measurement.

Diode test method

  1. A red pen connected to the fine red line, a black pen connected to the fine black line, and then observe the multimeter readings; the next red pen does not move, and the black pen measured fine yellow, fine green, fine basket of three lines, and observe the multimeter readings, the three readings obtained in the highest data and the lowest data between the highest data and the lowest data can not be a difference of 10 data.
  2. Voltage detection method: multimeter connected to the 20V voltage gear, the black pen is connected to the thin black line, the red pen is connected to the three signal lines, and slowly rotate the motor, the multimeter reading should be 0V-5V alternating voltage changes, or else the corresponding Hall damage.

Electric car motor hall mount wiring connection

You need to connect the three negative poles of the three Halls into one, and then connect the three positive poles of the three Halls into one, plus the three signal wires, a total of five wires, connect these five wires with the five of the controller outputs and you're done.

It is also important to note that if the motor's hall is broken and the controller is not smart, the motor will not run. However, some smart controllers can also jitter at the start, resulting in a high starting current, and it is best to have them repaired or replaced for a safer and more comfortable ride.

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